The book is based on a survey on students’ reading competence in the English language at the secondary school level in Tanzania. First, from the mid-1970s, there has been a general dissatisfaction with the educational standards of school leavers at all levels of education in Tanzania. Secondly, there has also been a concern that the levels of English language proficiency have been falling. A number of important studies on language in education have suggested a relationship between the two problems. And since students did not understand English, the medium of instruction, they are unable to understand subjects taught through this medium. The situation in Tanzania is one where the government directs that the English language shall be the medium of instruction while admitting that students do not understand English; where teachers have to teach in Kiswahili to enable students to understand the subject matter; but because of policy requirements, they ought to set examinations in English; and where students, because they received most of their instruction in Kiswahili, fail to do well in examinations which are conducted through the English language. This is what we refer to in our book as “the language crisis”.